Sizing valves for steam - Basic Documentation - VVF22.100-160 - VVF22.25-10 - VVF22.25-2.5 - VVF22.25-4 - VVF22.25-6.3 - VVF22.40-16 - VVF22.40-25 - VVF22.50-40 - VVF22.65-63 - VVF22.80-100 - VVF32.100-160 - VVF32.125-250 - VVF32.15-1.6 - VVF32.15-2.5 - VVF32.15-4 - VVF32.150-400 - VVF32.25-10 - VVF32.25-6.3 - VVF32.40-16 - VVF32.40-25 - VVF32.50-40 - VVF32.65-63 - VVF32.80-100 - VVF42.100-125 - VVF42.100-160 - VVF42.100-160K - VVF42.125-200 - VVF42.125-250 - VVF42.125-250K - VVF42.15-1.6 - VVF42.15-2.5 - VVF42.15-4 - VVF42.150-315 - VVF42.150-360K - VVF42.150-400 - VVF42.20-6.3 - VVF42.25-10 - VVF42.25-6.3 - VVF42.32-16 - VVF42.40-16 - VVF42.40-25 - VVF42.50-31.5 - VVF42.50-40 - VVF42.50-40K - VVF42.65-50 - VVF42.65-63 - VVF42.65-63K - VVF42.80-100 - VVF42.80-100K - VVF42.80-80 - VVF43.100-125 - VVF43.100-150K - VVF43.100-160 - VVF43.125-200 - VVF43.125-220K - VVF43.125-250 - VVF43.150-315 - VVF43.150-315K - VVF43.150-400 - VVF43.200-450K - VVF43.250-630K - VVF43.65-50 - VVF43.65-63 - VVF43.65-63K - VVF43.80-100 - VVF43.80-100K - VVF43.80-80 - VVF53.100-150K - VVF53.100-160 - VVF53.125-220K - VVF53.125-250 - VVF53.15-0.16 - VVF53.15-0.2 - VVF53.15-0.25 - VVF53.15-0.32 - VVF53.15-0.4 - VVF53.15-0.5 - VVF53.15-0.63 - VVF53.15-0.8 - VVF53.15-1 - VVF53.15-1.25 - VVF53.15-1.6 - VVF53.15-2 - VVF53.15-2.5 - VVF53.15-3.2 - VVF53.15-4 - VVF53.150-315K - VVF53.150-400 - VVF53.20-6.3 - VVF53.200-450K - VVF53.25-10 - VVF53.25-5 - VVF53.25-6.3 - VVF53.25-8 - VVF53.250-630K - VVF53.32-16 - VVF53.40-12.5 - VVF53.40-16 - VVF53.40-20 - VVF53.40-25 - VVF53.50-31.5 - VVF53.50-40 - VVF53.50-40K - VVF53.65-63 - VVF53.65-63K - VVF53.80-100 - VVF53.80-100K - VVG41.11 - VVG41.12 - VVG41.13 - VVG41.14 - VVG41.15 - VVG41.15-1.6K - VVG41.15-2.5K - VVG41.15-4K - VVG41.20 - VVG41.25 - VVG41.32 - VVG41.40 - VVG41.50 - VXF22.100-160 - VXF22.25-10 - VXF22.25-2.5 - VXF22.25-4 - VXF22.25-6.3 - VXF22.40-16 - VXF22.40-25 - VXF22.50-40 - VXF22.65-63 - VXF22.80-100 - VXF32.100-160 - VXF32.125-250 - VXF32.15-1.6 - VXF32.15-2.5 - VXF32.15-4 - VXF32.150-400 - VXF32.25-10 - VXF32.25-6.3 - VXF32.40-16 - VXF32.40-25 - VXF32.50-40 - VXF32.65-63 - VXF32.80-100 - VXF42.100-125 - VXF42.100-160 - VXF42.125-200 - VXF42.125-250 - VXF42.15-1.6 - VXF42.15-2.5 - VXF42.15-4 - VXF42.150-315 - VXF42.150-400 - VXF42.20-6.3 - VXF42.25-10 - VXF42.25-6.3 - VXF42.32-16 - VXF42.40-16 - VXF42.40-25 - VXF42.50-31.5 - VXF42.50-40 - VXF42.65-50 - VXF42.65-63 - VXF42.80-100 - VXF42.80-80 - VXF43.100-125 - VXF43.100-160 - VXF43.125-200 - VXF43.125-250 - VXF43.150-315 - VXF43.150-400 - VXF43.65-50 - VXF43.65-63 - VXF43.80-100 - VXF43.80-80 - VXF53.100-160 - VXF53.125-250 - VXF53.15-1.6 - VXF53.15-2.5 - VXF53.15-4 - VXF53.150-400 - VXF53.20-6.3 - VXF53.25-10 - VXF53.25-6.3 - VXF53.32-16 - VXF53.40-16 - VXF53.40-25 - VXF53.50-40 - VXF53.65-63 - VXF53.80-100 - VXG41.1301 - VXG41.1401 - VXG41.15 - VXG41.1501 - VXG41.20 - VXG41.2001 - VXG41.25 - VXG41.2501 - VXG41.32 - VXG41.3201 - VXG41.40 - VXG41.4001 - VXG41.50 - VXG41.5001

Valves VVF..,VXF..,VVG41.., VXG41.., VVI41.., VXI41..

Product Family
Acvatix
Product Group
Large Stroke (BC1)
Content Language
English
Content Type
Basic Documentation
Status
Valid
Date
2017-10-25
Document No
CE1P4030en
Download ID
A6V10344990
Stock No.
BPZ:VVG41.11
BPZ:VVG41.12
BPZ:VVG41.13
BPZ:VVG41.14
BPZ:VVG41.15
BPZ:VVG41.15-1.6K
BPZ:VVG41.15-2.5K
BPZ:VVG41.15-4K
BPZ:VVG41.20
BPZ:VVG41.25
BPZ:VVG41.32
BPZ:VVG41.40
BPZ:VVG41.50
BPZ:VXG41.1301
BPZ:VXG41.1401
BPZ:VXG41.15
BPZ:VXG41.1501
BPZ:VXG41.20
BPZ:VXG41.2001
BPZ:VXG41.25
BPZ:VXG41.2501
BPZ:VXG41.32
BPZ:VXG41.3201
BPZ:VXG41.40
BPZ:VXG41.4001
BPZ:VXG41.50
BPZ:VXG41.5001
S55200-V100
S55200-V101
S55200-V102
S55200-V103
S55200-V104
S55200-V105
S55200-V106
S55200-V107
S55200-V108
S55200-V109
S55200-V110
S55200-V111
S55200-V112
S55200-V113
S55200-V114
S55200-V115
S55200-V116
S55200-V117
S55200-V118
S55200-V119
S55202-V100
S55202-V101
S55202-V102
S55202-V103
S55202-V104
S55202-V105
S55202-V106
S55202-V107
S55202-V108
S55202-V109
S55202-V110
S55202-V111
S55202-V112
S55202-V113
S55202-V114
S55202-V115
S55202-V116
S55202-V117
S55202-V118
S55202-V119
S55202-V120
S55202-V121
S55202-V122
S55202-V123
S55202-V124
S55202-V125
S55204-V100
S55204-V101
S55204-V102
S55204-V103
S55204-V104
S55204-V105
S55204-V106
S55204-V107
S55204-V108
S55204-V109
S55204-V110
S55204-V111
S55204-V112
S55204-V113
S55204-V114
S55204-V115
S55204-V116
S55204-V117
S55204-V118
S55204-V119
S55204-V120
S55204-V121
S55204-V122
S55204-V123
S55204-V124
S55204-V125
S55204-V126
S55204-V127
S55204-V128
S55204-V129
S55204-V130
S55204-V131
S55204-V132
S55204-V133
S55204-V134
S55204-V135
S55204-V136
S55204-V137
S55204-V138
S55204-V139
S55204-V140
S55204-V141
S55204-V142
S55204-V143
S55204-V144
S55204-V145
S55204-V146
S55204-V147
S55206-V100
S55206-V101
S55206-V102
S55206-V103
S55206-V104
S55206-V105
S55206-V106
S55206-V107
S55206-V108
S55206-V109
S55206-V110
S55206-V111
S55206-V115
S55206-V116
S55206-V117
S55206-V118
S55206-V119
S55206-V120
S55206-V121
S55206-V122
S55206-V123
S55206-V124
S55206-V125
S55206-V126
S55206-V127
S55206-V128
S55206-V129
S55208-V100
S55208-V101
S55208-V102
S55208-V103
S55208-V104
S55208-V105
S55208-V106
S55208-V107
S55208-V108
S55208-V109
S55208-V110
S55208-V111
S55208-V112
S55208-V113
S55208-V114
S55208-V116
S55208-V117
S55208-V118
S55208-V119
S55208-V120
S55208-V122
S55208-V123
S55208-V124
S55208-V125
S55208-V126
S55208-V127
S55208-V128
S55208-V129
S55208-V130
S55208-V131
S55208-V132
S55208-V133
S55208-V134
S55208-V135
S55208-V136
S55208-V140
S55208-V141
S55208-V142
S55208-V144
S55208-V145
S55208-V146
S55208-V148
S55208-V149
S55208-V150
S55208-V152
S55208-V153
S55208-V154
S55208-V155
S55208-V156
S55208-V157
S55208-V158
S55208-V159
S55208-V160
S55208-V161
S55208-V162
Product No.
VVF22.100-160
VVF22.25-10
VVF22.25-2.5
VVF22.25-4
VVF22.25-6.3
VVF22.40-16
VVF22.40-25
VVF22.50-40
VVF22.65-63
VVF22.80-100
VVF32.100-160
VVF32.125-250
VVF32.15-1.6
VVF32.15-2.5
VVF32.15-4
VVF32.150-400
VVF32.25-10
VVF32.25-6.3
VVF32.40-16
VVF32.40-25
VVF32.50-40
VVF32.65-63
VVF32.80-100
VVF42.100-125
VVF42.100-160
VVF42.100-160K
VVF42.125-200
VVF42.125-250
VVF42.125-250K
VVF42.15-1.6
VVF42.15-2.5
VVF42.15-4
VVF42.150-315
VVF42.150-360K
VVF42.150-400
VVF42.20-6.3
VVF42.25-10
VVF42.25-6.3
VVF42.32-16
VVF42.40-16
VVF42.40-25
VVF42.50-31.5
VVF42.50-40
VVF42.50-40K
VVF42.65-50
VVF42.65-63
VVF42.65-63K
VVF42.80-100
VVF42.80-100K
VVF42.80-80
VVF43.100-125
VVF43.100-150K
VVF43.100-160
VVF43.125-200
VVF43.125-220K
VVF43.125-250
VVF43.150-315
VVF43.150-315K
VVF43.150-400
VVF43.200-450K
VVF43.250-630K
VVF43.65-50
VVF43.65-63
VVF43.65-63K
VVF43.80-100
VVF43.80-100K
VVF43.80-80
VVF53.100-150K
VVF53.100-160
VVF53.125-220K
VVF53.125-250
VVF53.15-0.16
VVF53.15-0.2
VVF53.15-0.25
VVF53.15-0.32
VVF53.15-0.4
VVF53.15-0.5
VVF53.15-0.63
VVF53.15-0.8
VVF53.15-1
VVF53.15-1.25
VVF53.15-1.6
VVF53.15-2
VVF53.15-2.5
VVF53.15-3.2
VVF53.15-4
VVF53.150-315K
VVF53.150-400
VVF53.20-6.3
VVF53.200-450K
VVF53.25-10
VVF53.25-5
VVF53.25-6.3
VVF53.25-8
VVF53.250-630K
VVF53.32-16
VVF53.40-12.5
VVF53.40-16
VVF53.40-20
VVF53.40-25
VVF53.50-31.5
VVF53.50-40
VVF53.50-40K
VVF53.65-63
VVF53.65-63K
VVF53.80-100
VVF53.80-100K
VVG41.11
VVG41.12
VVG41.13
VVG41.14
VVG41.15
VVG41.15-1.6K
VVG41.15-2.5K
VVG41.15-4K
VVG41.20
VVG41.25
VVG41.32
VVG41.40
VVG41.50
VXF22.100-160
VXF22.25-10
VXF22.25-2.5
VXF22.25-4
VXF22.25-6.3
VXF22.40-16
VXF22.40-25
VXF22.50-40
VXF22.65-63
VXF22.80-100
VXF32.100-160
VXF32.125-250
VXF32.15-1.6
VXF32.15-2.5
VXF32.15-4
VXF32.150-400
VXF32.25-10
VXF32.25-6.3
VXF32.40-16
VXF32.40-25
VXF32.50-40
VXF32.65-63
VXF32.80-100
VXF42.100-125
VXF42.100-160
VXF42.125-200
VXF42.125-250
VXF42.15-1.6
VXF42.15-2.5
VXF42.15-4
VXF42.150-315
VXF42.150-400
VXF42.20-6.3
VXF42.25-10
VXF42.25-6.3
VXF42.32-16
VXF42.40-16
VXF42.40-25
VXF42.50-31.5
VXF42.50-40
VXF42.65-50
VXF42.65-63
VXF42.80-100
VXF42.80-80
VXF43.100-125
VXF43.100-160
VXF43.125-200
VXF43.125-250
VXF43.150-315
VXF43.150-400
VXF43.65-50
VXF43.65-63
VXF43.80-100
VXF43.80-80
VXF53.100-160
VXF53.125-250
VXF53.15-1.6
VXF53.15-2.5
VXF53.15-4
VXF53.150-400
VXF53.20-6.3
VXF53.25-10
VXF53.25-6.3
VXF53.32-16
VXF53.40-16
VXF53.40-25
VXF53.50-40
VXF53.65-63
VXF53.80-100
VXG41.1301
VXG41.1401
VXG41.15
VXG41.1501
VXG41.20
VXG41.2001
VXG41.25
VXG41.2501
VXG41.32
VXG41.3201
VXG41.40
VXG41.4001
VXG41.50
VXG41.5001

Since steam is compressible, valve sizing for steam must be based on other criteria. The most important characteristic of compressible flow is that the speed of flow in the throttling section can only increase up to the speed of sound. When this limit is reached, the speed of flow and thus the volumetric flow, or the steam mass flow, no longer increases, even if the differential pressure ∆p rises. To ensure good controllability and favorably priced valve selection, it is advisable to have the differential pressure in normal operation as close as possible to the critical pressure ratio.

Before starting valve sizing, the plant-related process parameters and the prevailing operating state must be defined:

  • Absolute steam pressure [kPa abs], [bar abs]

  • Temperature of saturated or superheated steam [°C]

  • Differential pressure ∆pmax in normal operation

The dryness of saturated steam at the valve’s inlet must be > 0.98.

During plant startup or shutdown, supercritical pressure conditions can occur:

  • In terms of potential damage to the valve, a subcritical pressure ratio is far less crucial since the speed of flow lies below the speed of sound, material abrasion is reduced, and the noise level is lower

Sizing procedure

  1. Calculate the steam mass flow m based on the amount of energy required Q100, the steam pressure, and the steam temperature.

  2. Determine whether the pressure ratio is in the sub- or supercritical range.

  3. Determine the kvs value based on the steam mass flow and the steam pressure.

Steam mass flow Pressure ratio =

Calculation of kvs value for steam

Subcritical range Supercritical range
Pressure ratio < 42 % subcritical

Pressure ratio ≥ 42 % supercritical

(not recommended)

Q100 = rated capacity in kW

rp1 = specific heat capacity of steam in kJ/kgK

p1 = absolute pressure at the valve inlet in kPa (prepressure)

p3 = absolute pressure at the valve outlet in kPa

= steam mass flow in kg/h

k = factor for superheating the steam = 1 + 0.0012 x ΔT (for saturated steam, k = 1)

ΔT = temperature spread in K of saturated steam and superheated steam

4030H03

Note

The level of absolute pressure p1 at the valve inlet must be at least such that the absolute pressure p3 at the valve outlet is higher than the atmospheric pressure.

Notes on the supercritical range

When there is a pressure ratio (p1 – p3) / p1 >0.42, the flow passing through the narrowest section of the valve reaches the speed of sound. This can lead to higher noise levels. A throttling system operating at a lower noise level (multistage pressure reduction, damping throttle by the outlet) alleviates the problem.

Subcritical < 42 %

  • Steam-controlled heat transfer medium without condensation

  • Shutoff valve on the steam side of condensation-controlled heat transfer media

Supercritical ≥ 42 %

  • Steam humidifier

  • Steam-controlled heat transfer medium with condensation in the heat exchanger

Recommendation for differential pressure Δpmax

For saturated and superheated steam, the differential pressure Δpmax across the valve should be as close as possible to the critical pressure ratio.

Abs. operating pressure [bar]

4030D02

Chart example: The chart of the selected valve must be observed

X and Y: Suitable actuators, depending on the 2-port valve

Medium temperature [°C]

Water

-

Wet steam

To be avoided

Saturated steam

Superheated steam

Permissible operating range

Water vapor table

Water vapor table for the saturated state (pressure table)

Pressure

Temperature

Spec. volume water

Spec. volume steam

Density steam

Enthalpy water

Enthalpy steam

Heat of vaporization

p

p

T

V'

V''

ρ''

h'

h''

r

[kPa]

[bar]

[°C]

[dm3/kg]

[m3/kg]

[kg/m3]

[kJ/kg]

[kJ/kg]

[kJ/kg]

1

2

3

4

0.010

0.020

0.030

0.040

6.9808

17.513

24.100

28.983

1.0001

1.0012

1.0027

1.0040

129.20

67.01

45.67

34.80

0.007739

0.01492

0.02190

0.02873

29.34

73.46

101.00

121.41

2514.1

2533.6

2545.6

2554.5

2485.0

2460.2

2444.6

2433.1

5

6

7

8

9

0.050

0.060

0.070

0.080

0.090

32.898

36.183

39.025

41.534

43.787

1.0052

1.0064

1.0074

1.0084

1.0094

28.19

23.74

20.53

18.10

16.20

0.03547

0.04212

0.04871

0.05523

0.06171

137.77

151.50

163.38

173.86

183.28

2561.6

2567.5

2572.6

2577.1

2581.1

2423.8

2416.0

2409.2

2403.2

2397.9

10

20

30

40

50

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

45.833

60.086

69.124

75.886

81.345

1.0102

1.0172

1.0223

1.0265

1.0301

14.67

7.650

5.229

3.993

3.240

0.06814

0.1307

0.1912

0.2504

0.3086

191.83

251.45

289.30

317.65

340.56

2584.8

2609.9

2625.4

2636.9

2646.0

2392.9

2358.4

2336.1

2319.2

2305.4

60

70

80

90

100

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

1.0

85.954

89.959

93.512

96.713

99.632

1.0333

1.0361

1.0387

1.0412

1.0434

2.732

2.365

2.087

1.869

1.694

0.3661

0.4229

0.4792

0.5350

0.5904

359.93

376.77

391.72

405.21

417.51

2653.6

2660.1

2665.8

2670.9

2675.4

2293.6

2283.3

2274.0

2265.6

2257.9

150

200

250

300

350

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

111.37

120.23

127.43

133.54

138.87

1.0530

1.0608

1.0675

1.0735

1.0789

1.159

0.8854

0.7184

0.6056

0.5240

0.8628

1.129

1.392

1.651

1.908

467.13

504.70

535.34

561.43

584.27

2693.4

2706.3

2716.4

2724.7

2731.6

2226.2

2201.6

2181.0

2163.2

2147.4

400

450

500

600

700

4.0

4.5

5.0

6.0

7.0

143.62

147.92

151.84

158.84

164.96

1.0839

1.0885

1.0928

1.1009

1.1082

0.4622

0.4138

0.3747

0.3155

0.2727

2.163

2.417

2.669

3.170

3.667

604.67

623.16

640.12

670.42

697.06

2737.6

2742.9

2747.5

2755.5

2762.0

2133.0

2119.7

2107.4

2085.0

2064.9

800

900

1'000

1'100

1'200

1'300

1'400

8.0

9.0

10

11

12

13

14

170.41

175.36

179.88

184.07

187.96

191.61

195.04

1.1150

1.1213

1.1274

1.1331

1.1386

1.1438

1.1489

0.2403

0.2148

0.1943

0.1774

0.1632

0.1511

0.1407

4.162

4.655

5.147

5.637

6.127

6.617

7.106

720.94

742.64

762.61

781.13

798.43

814.70

830.08

2767.5

2772.1

2776.2

2779.7

2782.7

2785.4

2787.8

2046.5

2029.5

2013.6

1998.5

1984.3

1970.7

1957.7

1'500

1'600

1'700

1'800

1'900

15

16

17

18

19

198.29

201.37

204.31

207.11

209.80

1.1539

1.1586

1.1633

1.1678

1.1723

0.1317

0.1237

0.1166

0.1103

0.1047

7.596

8.085

8.575

9.065

9.555

844.67

858.56

871.84

884.58

896.81

2798.9

2791.7

2793.4

2794.8

2796.1

1945.2

1933.2

1921.5

1910.3

1899.3

2'000

2'500

3'000

4'000

5'000

20

25

30

40

50

212.37

223.94

233.84

250.33

263.91

1.1766

1.1972

1.2163

1.2521

1.2858

0.09954

0.07991

0.06663

0.04975

0.03743

10.05

12.51

15.01

10.10

25.36

908.59

961.96

1008.4

1087.4

1154.5

2797.2

2800.9

2802.3

2800.3

2794.2

1888.6

1839.0

1793.9

1712.9

1639.7

6'000

7'000

8'000

9'000

60

70

80

90

275.55

285.79

294.97

303.31

1.3187

1.3513

1.3842

1.4179

0.03244

0.02737

0.02353

0.02050

30.83

36.53

42.51

48.79

1213.7

1267.4

1317.1

1363.7

2785.0

2773.5

2759.9

2744.6

1571.3

1506.0

1442.8

1380.9

10'000

11'000

12'000

13'000

14'000

100

110

120

130

140

310.96

318.05

324.65

330.83

336.64

1.4526

1.4887

1.5268

1.5672

1.6106

0.01804

0.01601

0.01428

0.01280

0.01150

55.43

62.48

70.01

78.14

86.99

1408.0

1450.6

1491.8

1532.0

1571.6

2727.7

2729.3

2689.2

2667.0

2642.4

1319.7

1258.7

1197.4

1135.0

1070.7

15'000

20'000

22'000

22'120

150

200

220

221.2

342.13

365.70

373.69

374.15

1.6579

2.0370

2.6714

3.17

0.01034

0.005877

0.003728

0.00317

96.71

170.2

268.3

315.5

1611.0

1826.5

2011.1

2107.4

2615.0

2418.4

2195.6

2107.4

1004.0

591.9

184.5

0